In recent years neuroevolution has become a dynamic and rapidly growing research field. Interest in this discipline is motivated by the need to create ad-hoc networks, the topology and parameters of which are optimized, according to the particular problem at hand. Although neuroevolution-based techniques can contribute fundamentally to improving the performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs), they present a drawback, related to the massive amount of computational resources needed. This paper proposes a novel population-based framework, aimed at finding the optimal set of synaptic weights for ANNs. The proposed method partitions the weights of a given network and, using an optimization heuristic, trains one layer at each step while “freezing” the remaining weights. In the experimental study, particle swarm optimization (PSO) was used as the underlying optimizer within the framework and its performance was compared against the standard training (i.e., training that considers the whole set of weights) of the network with PSO and the backward propagation of the errors (backpropagation). Results show that the subsequent training of sub-spaces reduces training time, achieves better generalizability, and leads to the exhibition of smaller variance in the architectural aspects of the network.