This paper demonstrates that the link between heterogeneity in longevity and lifetime income across countries is mostly high and often increasing; that it translates into an implicit tax/subsidy, with rates reaching 20 percent and higher in some countries; that such rates risk perverting redistributive objectives of pension schemes and distorting individual lifecycle labor supply and savings decisions; and that this in turn risks invalidating current reform approaches of a closer contribution-benefit link and life expectancy-indexed retirement age. The paper suggests and explores a number of interventions in the accumulation, benefit determination, and disbursement stages to address longevity’ heterogeneity.
- Defined Contribution Scheme
- Two-Tier Contribution Structure
- Proxied Life Expectancy
- Tax/Subsidy Structure