Nature has been producing cellulose since long before man walked the surface of the earth. Millions of years of natural design and testing have resulted in cellulose-based structures that are an inspiration for the production of synthetic materials based on cellulose with properties that can mimic natural designs, functions, and properties. Here, five sections describe cellulose-based materials with characteristics that are inspired by gratings that exist on the petals of the plants, structurally colored materials, helical filaments produced by plants, water-responsive materials in plants, and environmental stimuli-responsive tissues found in insects and plants. The synthetic cellulose-based materials described herein are in the form of fibers and films. Fascinating multifunctional materials are prepared from cellulose-based liquid crystals and from composite cellulosic materials that combine functionality with structural performance. Future and recent applications are outlined.
- Cellulose-based liquid-crystalline materials
- Cellulose-based photonic materials
- Cellulosic fibers and films mimicking the shapes of natural systems
- Nature's bioinspired systems
- Responsive cellulose-based materials