Climate changes implicate an increase in climate instability and the occurrence of extreme temperature in the environment. In this context, the differential triggering of cold tolerance mechanisms among coffee plants, highlighting the existence of important genetic variability, is of up most importance to be exploited in genotype screening and breeding programs. This review deals with the identification and triggering of acclimation mechanisms that shield key functions and structures of photosynthesis, with a particular emphasis on experiments under environmental controlled conditions. These mechanisms allow plants to perform metabolic and structural adjustments, particularly under conditions of a gradual cold exposure, simulating the effects happening in the field under cold periods. Detailed attention is given to the strengthening of the antioxidative system and to the dynamics of the lipid matrix components in chloroplast membranes, since they were found to constitute crucial traits to an effective long-term acclimation and, therefore, to guarantee the economic sustainability of this important tropical cash crop, particularly in cultivation areas prone to the occurrence of low positive temperatures.