|Title of host publication||Wiley Encyclopedia of Management|
|Publisher||John Wiley & Sons, Ltd|
|Number of pages||4|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement models.
- formative measurement reflective measurement structural equation modeling survey research validity reliability partial least squares measurement and scaling