An analytical review of the stages of development and state-of-the-art of ion-beam sources, which are based on room-temperature ionic liquids for aerospace and ion-beam technologies, is presented. The properties of ionic liquids—new ion-conducting materials (“liquid plasma or plasma in a bottle”)—are discussed. The design, operating conditions, and technology of manufacturing pointlike, capillary, matrix, and linear ion sources with ionic liquids are described in detail. The main fields of their application, including electrostatic rocket engines (microthrusters) for CubeSat-format satellites and systems with focused ion beams for technological processing of materials and structures in the nanometer region and for microprobe investigations are analyzed.
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- SURFACE MODIFICATION