Marine hyperthermophiles accumulate small organic compounds, known as compatible solutes, in response to supraoptimal temperatures or salinities. Pyrococcus furiosus is a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows optimally at temperatures near 100°C. This organism accumulates mannosylglycerate (MG) and di-myo-inositol phosphate (DIP) in response to osmotic and heat stress, respectively. It has been assumed that MG and DIP are involved in cell protection; however, firm evidence for the roles of these solutes in stress adaptation is still missing, largely due to the lack of genetic tools to produce suitable mutants of hyperthermophiles. Recently, such tools were developed for P. furiosus, making this organism an ideal target for that purpose. In this work, genes coding for the synthases in the biosynthetic pathways of MG and DIP were deleted by double-crossover homologous recombination. The growth profiles and solute patterns of the two mutants and the parent strain were investigated under optimal growth conditions and also at supraoptimal temperatures and NaCl concentrations. DIP was a suitable replacement for MG during heat stress, but substitution of MG for DIP and aspartate led to less efficient growth under conditions of osmotic stress. The results suggest that the cascade of molecular events leading to MG synthesis is tuned for osmotic adjustment, while the machinery for induction of DIP synthesis responds to either stress agent. MG protects cells against heat as effectively as DIP, despite the finding that the amount of DIP consistently increases in response to heat stress in the nine (hyper)thermophiles examined thus far.