Modern imaging and image-guided treatments of the prostate gland: MR and ablation for cancer and prostatic artery embolization for benign prostatic hyperplasia

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Abstract

Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) has proven to be an essential tool for diagnosis, post-treatment follow-up, aggressiveness assessment, and active surveillance of prostate cancer. Currently, this imaging technique is part of the daily practice in many oncological centres. This manuscript aims to review the use of mpMRI in the set of prostatic diseases, either malignant or benign: mpMRI to detect and stage prostate cancer is discussed, as well as its use for active surveillance. Image-guided ablation techniques for prostate cancer are also reviewed. The need to establish minimum acceptable technical parameters for prostate mpMRI, standardize reports, uniform terminology for describing imaging findings, and develop assessment categories that differentiate levels of suspicion for clinically significant prostate cancer led to the development of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System that is reviewed. Special focus will also be given on the most up-to-date evidence of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Management of patients with BPH, technical aspects of PAE, expected outcomes and level of evidence are reviewed with the most recent literature. PAE is a challenging technique that requires dedicated anatomical knowledge and comprehensive embolization skills. PAE has been shown to be an effective minimally-invasive treatment option for symptomatic BPH patients, that can be viewed between medical therapy and surgery. PAE may be a good option for symptomatic BPH patients that do not want to be operated and can obviate the need for prostatic surgery in up to 80% of treated patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20190019
JournalBJR open
Volume1
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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