Multifocus Optical Microscopy Applied to the Study of Archaeological Metals

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Studies on cultural metal artifacts can benefit greatly from microscopy techniques. The examination of microstructural features can provide relevant information about ancient manufacturing techniques, as well as about corrosion/degradation processes. In the present work, advantages of the use of multifocus imaging techniques in optical microscopy for the study of archaeological metals are presented. An archaeometallurgical study of a large collection of bronzes demonstrates the possibility of a microstructural study with no need for sample removal, which is a great advantage in the study of cultural objects. In addition, the study of mounted samples illustrates the advantages of the multifocus technique in the examination of particular corrosion features, with the possibility of three-dimensional reconstructions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1248-1254
JournalMicroscopy and Microanalysis
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


  • 3D reconstructions
  • archaeometallurgy
  • cultural heritage
  • microstructure
  • multifocus imaging
  • optical microscopy

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