New development on materials and techniques used in the heraldic designs of illuminated Manueline foral charters by multi-analytical methods

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In the illuminatedforalcharters commissioned by D. Manuel I, King of Portugal (1495–1521), heraldry played a prominent role. In this work, royal emblems corresponding to the third heraldic design, applied to theCharter of Couto de Teixedo, are studied by means of EDXRF, SEM–EDS, micro-Raman, micro-FTIR and HPLC–DAD to characterize the materials and techniques used to produce this masterpiece of Portuguese Renaissance. By comparing this data with the results previously obtained in other three charters, this research allows for the first time an accurate insight into the reformed manuscripts production, especially since the illuminated charters under consideration were all investigated on the basis of similar micro-spectroscopic techniques. Inks, metal coatings, pigments, organic dyes, fillers or extenders, and binding media are discussed, and their use enlightened by the politic and legal messages theforalcharters had to convey. Parchment analysis allowed us to identify the animal species, and all undertaken processes along its preparation. HPLC–DAD allowed us to differentiate the gums used. CaSO4was observed in the parchment as a degradation product of CaCO3used in parchment production in the presence of metal sulfates coming from the ink. Pigments used in the different colors as well as some specific phases for some colors were identified. Silvering and gilding processes, metal caratage and silver oxidation compounds were also objects of the present study.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)242-257
JournalApplied Radiation and Isotopes
Issue numberDecember 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013

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