PURPOSE: To evaluate whether pelvic pain following uterine artery embolization (UAE) can be decreased by using ketoprofen mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized prospective study was performed in 80 patients (age range, 25-52 years; mean age, 41 years) undergoing UAE with PVA between March and August 2006. Forty patients received PVA particles mixed with ketoprofen, and 40 received bland PVA particles. Fifty-three patients who were asymptomatic 8 hours after embolization were discharged. Pain scores were compared during the first 8 hours after the procedure, at discharge, and the following day. The results were evaluated after 6 months. RESULTS: Eight hours after UAE, 13 of the 40 patients in the group without ketoprofen (32%) reported severe or very severe pain, whereas none of the patients in the group receiving ketoprofen reported severe or very severe pain, as determined with a numeric pain score scale (P = .0015). Nineteen of the 40 patients without ketoprofen (48%) were treated as inpatients, but only 10 in the ketoprofen group (25%) were treated as inpatients. The differences in the clinical outcome, as well in the uterus and fibroid sizes at discharge and at 6 months, were not statistically significant (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of PVA particles mixed with ketoprofen resulted in a statistically significant reduction in pelvic pain during the first 8 hours after UAE as compared to the use of PVA alone. However, no significant differences in pain scores were seen after 8 hours. These findings may lead to a reduction in inpatient management for UAE; however, further study of this approach is warranted.