RuvB-Like transcription factors function in cell cycle regulation, development and human disease, such as cancer and heart hyperplasia. The mechanisms that regulate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent activity, oligomerization and post-translational modifications in this family of enzymes are yet unknown. We present the first crystallographic structure of full-length human RuvBL2 which provides novel insights into its mechanistic action and biology. The ring-shaped hexameric RuvBL2 structure presented here resolves for the first time the mobile domain II of the human protein, which is responsible for protein-protein interactions and ATPase activity regulation. Structural analysis suggests how ATP binding may lead to domain II motion through interactions with conserved N-terminal loop histidine residues. Furthermore, a comparison between hsRuvBL1 and 2 shows differences in surface charge distribution that may account for previously described differences in regulation. Analytical ultracentrifugation and cryo electron microscopy analyses performed on hsRuvBL2 highlight an oligomer plasticity that possibly reflects different physiological conformations of the protein in the cell, as well as that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) can promote the oligomerization of monomeric hsRuvBL2. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism for ATP binding and domain II conformational change coupling.